DongFeng 11 (CSS-7) Short-Range Ballistic Missile
The DongFeng 11 (Export name: M-11; NATO codename: CSS-7) is a road-mobile, single-stage, short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) system developed by CASIC Sanjiang Space Group (also known as Base 066) located in Hubei Province. The missile and its 8-wheeled transporter-erector-launcher (TEL) vehicle bear some resemblance to the Russian SS-1C Scud-B. The DongFeng 11 was developed in the 1980s intended for the export market. An improved variant DongFeng 11A with extended range and greater accuracy was fielded by the PLA ground forces in 1999.
The DongFeng 11 development began in the late 1970s as the PRC’s first conventionally-armed tactical SRBM. The missile and its 8X8 TEL vehicle were demonstrated to the PLA in 1987, and the first test launch took place in 1990. The DongFeng 11 is fully compliant with the requirements of the 1987 Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), which restricts the export of delivery systems and related technology for those systems capable of carrying more than 500kg payload over a range of 300km or above.
DongFeng 11 TEL vehicle (Chinese Internet)
The development of an improved variant designated DongFeng 11A began in 1993 under the support of the PLA. In addition to the extended range of over 500km, the missile is highlighted by its greater accuracy achieved by using a combined INS/GPS guidance system. The first test launch took place successfully on 6 October 1997. However, during the second test launch few days after, the missile lost control shortly after lifting off. The failure caused a major setback in the DongFeng 11A programme, with the missile’s certification postponed to mid-1998. The missile was commissioned possibly in 1999, with a tactical missile brigade activated in the Nanjing Military Region.
The DongFeng 11A was intended to be deployed by ground forces as a conventional long-range weapon to fulfil the gap in firing range between an artillery rocket system (50~100km) and a strategic surface-to-surface missile (over 600km). Nanjing Military Region deployed the PLA’s first operational DongFeng 11 missile brigade (with 20~30 missile launch systems) in the late 1990s. The 2007 US DoD Report to the Congress estimated that by 2007 a total of 575~625 DongFeng 11 missiles and 110~130 launcher systems could have been deployed, most of which are located near the Taiwan Strait.
The DongFeng 11 is a road-mobile, single-stage, solid-propellant, short-range ballistic missile. The basic variant DongFeng 11 has a range of 280~350km and delivers a single-warhead of 500kg. The improved DongFeng 11A has an extended range of over 500~700km. As well as conventional high-explosive (HE) warhead, the missile may also be able to carry unconventional warhead such as fuel-air explosive (FAE), sub-munitions, and chemical agents. It may also be able to carry tactical nuclear warhead of 2~20kT yield.
DongFeng 11 TEL vehicle (Chinese Internet)
The basic variant DongFeng 11 uses an inertial guidance + terminal radar guidance, giving a circular error probability (CEP) of 500~600m . The improved DongFeng 11A uses inertial/GPS guidance system with optical correlation terminal targeting, resulting in an greater accuracy of below 200m CEP. The missile has four large stabilising fins at the bottom as well as four small fins in the mid-section for corrections at the final phase of the flight.
The missile is launched from a 8X8 WS2400 transporter-erector-launcher (TEL) vehicle, to provide full road and cross-country mobility. The vehicle was developed by Wanshan Special Vehicle Manufactory, a Sanjiang subordinate company, in the early 1980s based on the Russian MAZ543 TEL vehicle.
The Export of the DongFeng 11/M-11 Technology
In 1992 US satellites provided images showing M-11 missile canisters being delivered at Sargodha air base near Lahore, Pakistan. The Clinton administration concluded that China may have already transferred the M-11 missile system and its technology to Pakistan, though no direct evidence was provided. In August 1993 the US announced its sanction against China for selling missile components to Pakistan that were barred under the MTCR. As a result of this sanction, US-made sensitive high-tech equipment and components were banned from being sold to China, and Chinese space industry were banned from launching US-made commercial satellites for foreign customers. This sanction was lifted in 1994.
Pakistan developed Shaheen-I and Shaheen-II missile systems on the basis of the M-11 design, but with a much extended range (600~700km). A further 30 to 50 missiles and TEL vehicles may have been delivered to Iran in 1995 with the objective of setting up a final assembly and maybe even full production capability, but this report cannot be confirmed. It is possible that Iran may obtained some M-11 missile technology from other sources to develop its own solid-fuel mobile missile system.
Additionally Iran has also developed its own indigenous SRBM systems which appears to be similar to the M-11.
Official name: DongFeng 11 (DF-11)
Export name: M-11
NATO reporting name: CSS-7
Contractor: CASIC Sanjiang Space Group (Base 066)
Service status: In service
Configuration: Single-stage, solid propellant
Deployment: Road mobile, 6X6 tractor truck + six-wheel trailer; or silo
Length: 7.5m (DF-11); 8.5m (DF-11A)
Launch weight: 4,200kg
Warhead: 500kg HE
Range: 280~350km (DF-11); >500km (DF-11A)
Accuracy: CEP 500~600m (DF-11); <200m (DF-11A)
Launch preparation time: 15~30 min
Last update: 18 February 2009