Type 094 (Jin Class) Nuclear-Powered Missile Submarine
The Type 094 (also referred to as Type 09-IV, NATO reporting name: Jin class) is the PLA Navy’s second-generation nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine (SSBN), succeeding the Type 092 (Xia class) SSBN of a single hull commissioned in 1983. The Type 094 was designed by CSIC’s Wuhan 2nd Ship Design Institute (also known as 719 Institute) in Wuhan, Hubei Province and built by CSIC’s Bohai Shipbuilding Heavy Industry Co. Ltd. (previously known as Bohai Shipyard) in Huludao, Liaoning Province.
The development of the Type 094 began in the late 1980s to early 1990s, reportedly with assistance of the Rubin Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering in St. Petersburg, one of Russia’s primary nuclear submarine designer.
Construction of the first-of-class began in 1999 and the submarine was launched in July 2004. A second hull was launched possibly in 2007 and may be commissioned in 2010. Both submarine have been undergoing sea trials, with no test launching of the ballistic missile from the submarine reported so far. The initial operational capability of the submarines may not come until 2012~2015.
The U.S. Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) predicted in December 2006 that the PRC will need to build a total of five Type 094 SSBNs in order to maintain a near-continuous at-sea SSBN presence, with at least one boat available and ready for missile launch at all times.
Satellite images have captured the two Type 094 SSBNs docked at the Bohai Shipyard, and one of the submarines was also spotted inside the PLA Navy’s nuclear submarine base at Xiaopingdao, Liaoning Province. In April 2008, Federation of American Scientists (FAS) website revealed that a Type 094 SSBN has been deployed to a newly-built nuclear submarine base near the city of Sanyang in Hainan Island .
Type 094 SSBN (Chinese Internet)
The Type 094 SSBN bears many similarities with the Type 093 Shang class nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN), suggesting that the two submarines share the same design baseline. The submarine features a water-drop shape hull, with a pair of fin-mounted hydroplanes and four diving planes.
The dive displacement of the submarine was estimated to be 8,000~9,000 tonnes. The Type 094 has yet approached the performance and capability of modern Russian and Western SSBN designs, especially in quietness and missile number. However, once fully operational, it will offer the PLA Navy with a much more credible sea-based nuclear retaliation capability than that offered by its predecessor Type 092 Xia class.
The Type 094 has the capacity to carry 12 submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM). The JuLang 2 SLBM designed and developed by CASIC 4th Academy is a three-stage, solid-propellant strategic ballistic missile. It is a derivation of the land-based DongFeng 31 (DF-31) intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). The maximum range of the JuLang 2 was estimated to be 7,000~8,000km, three times that of the first-generation JuLang 1 SLBM used by the Type 092.
Each JuLang 2 can carry a single thermalnuclear warhead of 25~1,000kt yield. Alternatively, the missile was said to be able to carry three or more 90kT multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRV), though this cannot be confirmed.
The submarine has six 533mm bow torpedo tubes, and carries a total of 12 Yu-3 (SET-65E) torpedoes, which is equipped with both active and passive homing. The torpedo, with a 205kg warhead, has a maximum range of 15km and a top speed of 40kt. Alternatively, the submarine may carry wake-homing anti-surface torpedoes or wire-homing anti-submarine torpedoes.
The submarine is fitted with sophisticated sonar systems, including bow-mounted sonar and H/SQC-207 flank-mounted sonar. Three flank-mounted sonar arrays are clearly visible on the hull of the submarine.
The submarine’s propulsion system is believed to be nuclear, turbo-electric arrangement, consisting of one pressurised water reactor (PWR), with one shaft.
Displacement: (Dived) 8,000~9,000t
Missile: 12 X JL-2 SLBM
- New Chinese SSBN Deploys to Hainan Island, Federation of American Scientists site blog
Last update: 13 March 2009