HongQi 12 (KaiShan 1) Surface-to-Air Missile System
The HongQi 12 (HQ-12), also known as KaiShan 1 (KS-1) in its export name, is a medium- to long-range, all-altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system developed by China Jiangnan Space Industry Co. (also known as Base 061). The KS-1 development programme began in the early 1980s to replace the ageing HongQi 2 (Chinese copy of the Russian SA-2 Guideline). The first test firing of the KS-1 reportedly took place in 1989 and the missile was first revealed to the public at the 1991 Paris Air Show. The development of the KS-1 was completed in 1994, but the missile failed to attract any customer from either domestic or international market.
The improved KS-1A was introduced in the late 1990s. The KS-1A features a truck-mounted mobile launcher replacing the original fixed launcher, and a new target acquisition/tracking radar. The missile has been marketed by China National Precision Machinery Import and Export Corporation (CPMIEC) to foreign customers since 2001. In 2005, a senior officer of Malaysia's armed forces said that Malaysia had in principle agreed to purchase the KS-1A missile from China. Both parties have signed a memorandum of understanding beforehand and such purchase will be listed into Malaysia's ninth development plan.
Truck-mounted HongQi 12 firing unit (Chinese Internet)
The PLA has been testing the KS-1 since the mid-1990s. However, the repeated delay in the commissioning of the missile indicated that the PLA was not entirely satisfied with the missile’s performance. During the exhibition at the Chinese Revolution Military Museum in July/August 2007 to mark the 80th anniversary of the PLA, a KS-1A missile launch vehicle and a guidance station were displayed to the public. During the same exhibition, a photo confirmed that the military designation of the KS-1 is HongQi 12, suggesting that the missile may now be operational with the PLA.
Based on the second- (upper-) stage of the HongQi 2, the single-chamber dual thrust, solid-fuelled missile, weighing 886kg, can engage targets flying as low as 0.5km and as high as 25km, has a slant range of 7km to 42km (KS-1A 50km) and a maximum speed of 1,200m/s. The radio-command KS-1 was designed primarily to engage aircraft and helicopters, but also has limited capability against air-to-surface missiles and other air-launched precision guidance weapons. A typical battery would consist of one radar and guidance station and four launchers with eight missiles ready to fire and 18 in reserve.
The basic variant of the KS-1 was launched from a fixed four-leg pedestal launcher developed from the HongQi 2 launcher. Each launcher has two ready-to-fire missiles mounted on slant launch-rails. The improved KS-1A is launched from a mobile launcher mounted on a 6X6 truck, each carrying two missiles mounted on slant launch-rails. In the latest improved variant the two missiles are carried and launched from two box-launchers, allowing better protection and easier maintenance.
A range of guidance stations have been developed for the KS-1 missile system. The basic variant KS-1 uses a SJ-202 (some reports suggested that it was actually SJ-212) 3D phased-array target acquisition/tracking and missile guidance station with multi-tracking and multi-engagement capabilities. The control station and the phased-array radar are mounted on a six-wheel trailer. The SJ-202 is the first Chinese indigenous 3D phased array radar, featuring a search range of 115km, a tracing range of 80km and a guiding range of 50km. The radar is possibly working at G-band, being able to guide six missiles to attack three to six targets. It is also said to have an impressive anti-jamming capability. This radar could also be integrated with the older HQ-2 SAM.
An alternative guidance station is the H-200, which also features phased-array target/acquisition and tracking radar capable of guiding six missiles to attack three targets. The station is mounted on a larger 8-wheel trailer. The same guidance was also displayed during the 2007 PLA exhibition.
An Internet source photo revealed a third option, consisting of a phased-array radar and a separate guidance station, both of which are mounted on 6X6 trucks.
Missile dimensions: length 5.6m; Diameter 0.4m; Wingspan 1.2m
Launch weight: 900kg
Propulsion: Solid rocket booster
Operating altitude: 0.5~25Km
Operating range: 7~42km, or(KS-1A) 5~50km
Maximum speed: 1,200m/s
Missile manoeuvrability: 20G
Guidance: Radar command
Warhead: 100kg HE fragmentation, with radio frequency
Single shot hit probability: N/A
Max target manoeuvring capability: 4~5G
Last update: 3 October 2009